JavaScript : Value vs Reference

JavaScript is a language full of surprises. One such surprise is understanding how some data types are copied by value or reference.

This can be a source of subtle bugs & confusion. So let's try to break this down into very simple terms for those just starting out.



Primitives such as Boolean, String, Number, null, undefined are copied by value.

let x = 'abc';  
let y = x;

console.log(x); //prints 'abc'  
console.log(y); //prints 'abc'  

In the example above, both x & y contain the value abc but they have separate copies of it.


Data types such as Array, Object, Function are copied by reference.

let x = ['a', 'b', 'c'];  
console.log(x); //prints ['a', 'b', 'c']  

When a variable is assigned a non-primitive value, it's given a reference to that object's location in memory. In this example above, the variable x doesn't actually contain the value ['a', 'b', 'c'], instead it points to a location in memory where that value is stored.

let y = x;  

When a reference type value is copied to another variable, like y in the example above, the object is copied by reference instead of value. In simple terms, x & y don't have their own copy of the value. They point to the same location in memory.

console.log(x); //prints ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd'];  
console.log(y); //prints ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd'];  

When a new item is pushed to x, the array in memory is modified, and as a result the variable y also reflects that change.


const a = { year : 2017 };  
const b = { year : 2017 };  
const c = a;

a === b; //false  
a === c; //true  

You might expect a===b to resolve to true but that isn't the case. The reason behind that is that although a & b contain identical objects, they still point to two distinct objects stored in different locations in memory.

On the contrary, a & c hold reference to the same location in memory & are therefore considered to be equal.

And there you have it. An extremely simplified & short view at how values are stored via reference vs value. If you're a new dev & found this helpful, please drop a comment or get in touch via twitter